European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp 869–875

Exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by intensity


    • School of AnthropologyUniversity of Arizona
  • Adam D. Foster
    • School of AnthropologyUniversity of Arizona
  • Alexandre Seillier
    • Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Texas Health Science Center
  • Andrea Giuffrida
    • Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Texas Health Science Center
  • Gregory L. Gerdeman
    • Department of BiologyEckerd College
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00421-012-2495-5

Cite this article as:
Raichlen, D.A., Foster, A.D., Seillier, A. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2013) 113: 869. doi:10.1007/s00421-012-2495-5


Endocannabinoids (eCB) are endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors that are densely expressed in brain networks responsible for reward. Recent work shows that exercise activates the eCB system in humans and other mammals, suggesting eCBs are partly responsible for the reported improvements in mood and affect following aerobic exercise in humans. However, exercise-induced psychological changes reported by runners are known to be dependent on exercise intensity, suggesting that any underlying molecular mechanism should also change with varying levels of exercise intensity. Here, we examine circulating levels of eCBs following aerobic exercise (treadmill running) in recreationally fit human runners at four different intensities. We show that eCB signaling is indeed intensity dependent, with significant changes in circulating eCBs observed following moderate intensities only (very high and very low intensity exercises do not significantly alter circulating eCB levels). Our results are consistent with intensity-dependent psychological state changes with exercise and therefore support the hypothesis that eCB activity is related to neurobiological effects of exercise. Thus, future studies examining the role of exercise-induced eCB signaling on neurobiology or physiology must take exercise intensity into account.


AEA2-AGPositive affectEndurance runningNeurogenesisAnalgesia

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© Springer-Verlag 2012