European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 112, Issue 4, pp 1335–1347

Effects of strength, endurance and combined training on muscle strength, walking speed and dynamic balance in aging men

  • J. Holviala
  • W. J. Kraemer
  • E. Sillanpää
  • H. Karppinen
  • J. Avela
  • A. Kauhanen
  • A. Häkkinen
  • K. Häkkinen
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00421-011-2089-7

Cite this article as:
Holviala, J., Kraemer, W.J., Sillanpää, E. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2012) 112: 1335. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2089-7

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine effects of 21-week twice weekly strength (ST), endurance (ET) and combined (ST + ET 2 + 2 times a week) (SET) training on neuromuscular, endurance and walking performances as well as balance. 108 healthy men (56.3 ± 9.9 years) were divided into three training (ST; n = 30, ET; n = 26, SET; n = 31) groups and controls (C n = 21). Dynamic 1RM and explosive leg presses (1RMleg, 50%1RMleg), peak oxygen uptake using a bicycle ergometer (VO2peak), 10 m loaded walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance distance (DYND) were measured. Significant increases were observed in maximal 1RMleg of 21% in ST (p < 0.001) and 22% in SET (p < 0.001) and in explosive 50%1RMleg of 7.5% in ST (p = 0.005) and 10.2% in SET (p < 0.001). VO2peak increased by 12.5% in ET (p = 0.001) and 9.8% in SET (p < 0.001). Significant decreases occurred in 10WALK in ST (p < 0.001) and SET (p = 0.003) and also in DYND of −10.3% in ST (p = 0.002) and −8% in SET (p = 0.028). The changes in C remained minor in all variables. In conclusion, ST and SET training produced significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, walking speed and balance without any interference effect in SET. Significant but moderate relationships were observed between strength and dynamic balance and walking speed, while no corresponding correlations were found in the ET group.

Keywords

Combined strength and endurance trainingBalanceFunctional capacityAging men

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Holviala
    • 1
  • W. J. Kraemer
    • 4
  • E. Sillanpää
    • 1
  • H. Karppinen
    • 1
  • J. Avela
    • 1
  • A. Kauhanen
    • 1
  • A. Häkkinen
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. Häkkinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology of Physical Activity, Neuromuscular Research CenterUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  2. 2.Central Finland Central HospitalJyväskyläFinland
  3. 3.Department of Health SciencesUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  4. 4.Human Performance Laboratory, Department of KinesiologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA