Proteomic assessment of the acute phase of dystrophin deficiency in mdx mice
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- Gardan-Salmon, D., Dixon, J.M., Lonergan, S.M. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2011) 111: 2763. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-1906-3
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence of a functional dystrophin protein and is modeled by the mdx mouse. The mdx mouse suffers an early necrotic bout in the hind limb muscles lasting from approximately 4 to 7 weeks. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which dystrophin deficiency changed the proteome very early in the disease process. In order to accomplish this, proteins from gastrocnemius from 6-week-old C57 (n = 6) and mdx (n = 6) mice were labeled with fluorescent dye and subjected to two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Resulting differentially expressed spots were excised and protein identity determined via MALDI-TOF followed by database searching using MASCOT. Proteins of the immediate energy system and glycolysis were generally down-regulated in mdx mice compared to C57 mice. Conversely, expression of proteins involved in the Kreb’s cycle and electron transport chain were increased in dystrophin-deficient muscle compared to control. Expression of cytoskeletal components, including tubulins, vimentin, and collagen, were increased in mdx mice compared to C57 mice. Importantly, these changes are occurring at only 6 weeks of age and are caused by acute dystrophin deficiency rather than more chronic injury. These data may provide insight regarding early pathologic changes occurring in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.