Hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses to the restriction of femoral blood flow by KAATSU in healthy subjects
The application of an orthostatic stress such as lower body negative pressure (LBNP) has been proposed to minimize the effects of weightlessness on the cardiovascular system and subsequently to reduce the cardiovascular deconditioning. The KAATSU training is a novel method to induce muscle strength and hypertrophy with blood pooling in capacitance vessels by restricting venous return. Here, we studied the hemodynamic, autonomic nervous and hormonal responses to the restriction of femoral blood flow by KAATSU in healthy male subjects, using the ultrasonography and impedance cardiography. The pressurization on both thighs induced pooling of blood into the legs with pressure-dependent reduction of femoral arterial blood flow. The application of 200 mmHg KAATSU significantly decreased left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDd), cardiac output (CO) and diameter of inferior vena cava (IVC). Similarly, 200 mmHg KAATSU also decreased stroke volume (SV), which was almost equal to the value in standing. Heart rate (HR) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) increased in a similar manner to standing with slight change of mean blood pressure (mBP). High-frequency power (HFRR) decreased during both 200 mmHg KAATSU and standing, while low-frequency/high-frequency power (LFRR/HFRR) increased significantly. During KAATSU and standing, the concentration of noradrenaline (NA) and vasopressin (ADH) and plasma renin activity (PRA) increased. These results indicate that KAATSU in supine subjects reproduces the effects of standing on HR, SV, TPR, etc., thus stimulating an orthostatic stimulus. And, KAATSU training appears to be a useful method for potential countermeasure like LBNP against orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.