Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle stress protein responses in trotters
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- Kinnunen, S., Hyyppä, S., Lappalainen, J. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2005) 93: 496. doi:10.1007/s00421-004-1162-x
Acute exercise induces oxidative stress and heat shock protein (HSP) expression. Information on the protection of stress proteins against oxidant insult and muscle damage during moderate exercise is scanty. We aimed to show how a single bout of moderate exercise affects the markers of oxidative stress and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1; the transcriptional regulator of HSP synthesis), and HSP70, HSP90 and glucose-regulated protein (GRP75) expression in horses. Eight clinically normal and regularly trained standardbred trotters were treadmill-exercised for 45 min at moderate intensity. Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise and at 4 and 24 h of recovery. Muscle biopsy samples from the middle gluteal muscle were taken before exercise and after 4 h of recovery. Acute exercise did not activate HSF1 or induce expression of HSP70, HSP90 or GRP75 in skeletal muscle. One bout of acute exercise increased protein oxidation, which was measured by protein carbonyls in plasma and muscle, but it did not effect 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, which are markers of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, mild muscle damage was observed 4 h after exercise. Our results showed that horses are susceptible to oxidative stress. One bout of exercise at moderate intensity and duration did not induce HSP responses despite the increased protein oxidation and tissue inflammation in equine muscle.