European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 92, Issue 6, pp 614–618

Thermal manikin history and applications

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00421-004-1135-0

Cite this article as:
Holmér, I. Eur J Appl Physiol (2004) 92: 614. doi:10.1007/s00421-004-1135-0


Thermal manikins have served research and development purposes for more than 60 years. They are widely used for analysing the thermal interface of the human body and its environment. Particular applications are found in the determination of thermal properties of clothing and in the evaluation of the local body-heat fluxes in complex environments such as in a vehicle cabin. Recent developments of sweating manikins as well as breathing manikins allow even more realistic simulations of the human thermal interaction with the environment.


Heat transferMethodReviewStandardsThermal stress

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thermal Environment Laboratory, Department of Design SciencesLund Technical UniversityLundSweden