Original Article

International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health

, Volume 86, Issue 7, pp 815-825

First online:

Respiratory health and breath condensate acidity in sawmill workers

  • Anita Ljubičić ĆalušićAffiliated withInstitute for Medical Research and Occupational Health Email author 
  • , Veda Marija VarnaiAffiliated withInstitute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
  • , Anka Ozana ČavlovićAffiliated withFaculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb
  • , Maja Šegvić KlarićAffiliated withFaculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb
  • , Ružica BeljoAffiliated withFaculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb
  • , Ljerka PresterAffiliated withInstitute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
  • , Jelena MacanAffiliated withInstitute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

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The aim of the study was to evaluate exhaled breath condensate acidity (EBC pH) as a biomarker of airway response to occupational respiratory hazards present in sawmill.


Sixty-one sawmill workers in total (26 from Sawmill 1 and 35 from Sawmill 2) provided EBC samples at the beginning and at the end of the working week. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, bronchodilator test and atopy status were assessed. Occupational environment was checked for the levels of respiratory hazards.


Airborne dust concentrations were below threshold limit value. Endotoxin in Sawmill 1 and Sawmill 2, and moulds in Sawmill 1 were at the levels able to induce inflammatory response in the airways. Mould levels were 2.5 times higher in Sawmill 1 than in Sawmill 2. Compared to Sawmill 2 workers, lower spirometry values, higher prevalence of dry cough and positive bronchodilator test were found in Sawmill 1 workers. Monday EBC pH values did not differ between sawmills, but declined after one working week in Sawmill 1 workers (from 7.88 to 7.49, P = 0.012) and not in Sawmill 2 workers. Similar results were obtained when only respiratory healthy non-smokers were analysed. Monday-to-Friday change of other respiratory parameters was not observed.


The results suggest EBC pH as a biomarker of acute respiratory effects related to occupational exposure to respiratory hazards in sawmills, presumably increased mould levels. The effect was present even at subclinical level, namely in respiratory healthy subjects. The long-term health implications remain unclear and should be evaluated in a follow-up study.


Atopy Bronchodilator test EBC pH Moulds Smoking Wood dust