Date: 19 Oct 2005

Intravitreal dexamethasone as adjuvant in the treatment of postoperative endophthalmitis: a prospective randomized trial

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Abstract

Purpose

To study whether intravitreal dexamethasone as adjuvant to intravitreal antibiotics improves the outcome in patients with suspected postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis.

Design

Prospective randomized clinical trial.

Setting

Tertiary referral center.

Patient population

Twenty-nine consecutive patients with suspected postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis within 6 weeks of cataract surgery.

Intervention

Patients underwent a vitreous biopsy followed by intravitreal injection of antibiotics (0.2 mg vancomycin and 0.05 mg gentamicin) and 400 μg dexamethasone or placebo. After 3–4 days the intravitreal injection of antibiotics and dexamethasone or placebo was repeated

Primary outcome measure

Snellen visual acuity at 3 and 12 months after treatment.

Results

In 20/29 patients (69%) the vitreous cultures were positive. 13/29 patients received dexamethasone. Seven patients had a functionally lost eye (final vision of hand movements or less), in four due to retinal detachment. Visual acuity tended to be better in the dexamethasone treated patients than in those given placebo, at both 3 months (P=0.055) and 12 months (P=0.080).

Conclusion

This small prospective, placebo-controlled series showed a trend towards a better visual outcome in patients with suspected bacterial endophthalmitis when treatment with intravitreal antibiotics was combined with intravitreal dexamethasone. Our findings justify a larger multicenter randomized study.