Journal of Neurology

, Volume 257, Issue 6, pp 969–976

Olfactory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysautonomia in Parkinson’s disease

  • Hisayoshi Oka
  • Chizuko Toyoda
  • Makiko Yogo
  • Soichiro Mochio
Original Communication

DOI: 10.1007/s00415-009-5447-1

Cite this article as:
Oka, H., Toyoda, C., Yogo, M. et al. J Neurol (2010) 257: 969. doi:10.1007/s00415-009-5447-1

Abstract

Several studies have reported that olfactory dysfunction is an early neuropathological manifestation of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Reduced cardiac meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) uptake may be one of the earliest signs of PD. We studied the relation of olfactory dysfunction to cardiovascular dysautonomia in patients with PD. The study group comprised 66 patients with PD (70.5 years) and 26 controls (70.3 years) for olfactory assessment, 21 controls (72.1 years) for cardiac 123I-MIBG scintigraphy and heart rate variability (HRV), assessed using the coefficient of variation for RR intervals (HRV), and 23 controls (69.2 years) for orthostatic blood pressure response. Olfactory function was assessed by the odor stick identification test Japan (OSIT-J), and cardiovascular autonomic function was evaluated by 123I-MIBG scintigraphy of the heart, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV. Patients with PD had a significantly lower OSIT-J score than did the controls (4.1 ± 3.0 vs. 9.9 ± 1.7, p = 0.001). The OSIT-J score was unrelated to variables other than gender, including age, disease duration, motor score on the unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, score on the mini-mental state examination, motor phenotype, visual hallucinations, and dopaminergic medication on multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. The OSIT-J score was related to the heart/mediastinum ratio of cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake, the fall in orthostatic blood pressure, and HRV, after adjustment for other clinical variables. Olfactory dysfunction in PD was, thus, significantly related to both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction, as well as vascular sympathetic dysfunction. As non-motor symptoms of PD, olfactory dysfunction and autonomic network failure appear to be closely related in PD.

Keywords

Olfactory dysfunction Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy Orthostatic hypotension Heart rate variability Cardiovascular dysautonomia 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisayoshi Oka
    • 1
  • Chizuko Toyoda
    • 1
  • Makiko Yogo
    • 1
  • Soichiro Mochio
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Daisan HospitalThe University School of MedicineKomaeJapan