Journal of Neurology

, Volume 253, Supplement 3, pp iii2–iii15

The diagnosis of multiple system atrophy


DOI: 10.1007/s00415-006-3002-x

Cite this article as:
Geser, F. & Wenning, G.K. J Neurol (2006) 253(Suppl 3): iii2. doi:10.1007/s00415-006-3002-x


The diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA) in life rests on clinical history and neurological examination. An accurate pre-mortem diagnosis of MSA is important because of prognostic and therapeutic implications. Consensus diagnostic criteria have been developed, but their use does not always improve recognition of MSA, particularly in early disease stages. A range of warning signs (red flags) may point towards MSA. However, their predictive value has never been determined prospectively. Additional investigations such as autonomic function tests, sphincter electromyography, or neuroimaging may be used to support the diagnosis or to exclude other diseases.

Key words

multiple system atrophy diagnosis core features red flags investigations 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Department of NeurologyInnsbruck Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria