Journal of Neurology

, Volume 253, Issue 2, pp 139–158

Clinical phenotypic heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease associated with mutations of the presenilin–1 gene


DOI: 10.1007/s00415-005-0019-5

Cite this article as:
Larner, A.J. & Doran, M. J Neurol (2006) 253: 139. doi:10.1007/s00415-005-0019-5


It is now 10 years since the first report of mutations in the presenilin genes that were deterministic for familial autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. The most common of these mutations occurs in the presenilin–1 gene (PSEN1) located on chromosome 14. In the ensuing decade, more than 100 PSEN1 mutations have been described. The emphasis of these reports has largely been on the novelty of the mutations and their potential pathogenic consequences rather than detailed clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and neuropathological accounts of patients with the mutation. This article reviews the clinical phenotypes of reported PSEN1 mutations, emphasizing their heterogeneity, and suggesting that other factors, both genetic and epigenetic,must contribute to disease phenotype.

Key words

Alzheimer's disease amyloid β–peptide frontotemporal dementia gamma secretase genotype–phenotype correlation presenilin–1 gene 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cognitive Function ClinicWalton Centre for Neurology and NeurosurgeryFazakerley, Liverpool, L9 7LJUK