Clinical phenotypic heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease associated with mutations of the presenilin–1 gene
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- Larner, A.J. & Doran, M. J Neurol (2006) 253: 139. doi:10.1007/s00415-005-0019-5
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It is now 10 years since the first report of mutations in the presenilin genes that were deterministic for familial autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. The most common of these mutations occurs in the presenilin–1 gene (PSEN1) located on chromosome 14. In the ensuing decade, more than 100 PSEN1 mutations have been described. The emphasis of these reports has largely been on the novelty of the mutations and their potential pathogenic consequences rather than detailed clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and neuropathological accounts of patients with the mutation. This article reviews the clinical phenotypes of reported PSEN1 mutations, emphasizing their heterogeneity, and suggesting that other factors, both genetic and epigenetic,must contribute to disease phenotype.