Original Article

International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 125, Issue 5, pp 629-636

PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile

  • Luísa PereiraAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto Email author 
  • , Farida AlshamaliAffiliated withGeneral Department of Forensic Sciences & Criminology, Dubai Police GHQ
  • , Rune AndreassenAffiliated withFaculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College
  • , Ruth BallardAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Sciences, California State University
  • , Wasun ChantratitaAffiliated withDepartment of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University
  • , Nam Soo ChoAffiliated withDepartment of Forensic Medicine, Central District Office, National Institute of Scientific Investigation
  • , Clotilde CoudrayAffiliated withLaboratoire d’Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagerie de Synthèse (AMIS), CNRS and University Toulouse III Paul Sabatier
  • , Jean-Michel DugoujonAffiliated withLaboratoire d’Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagerie de Synthèse (AMIS), CNRS and University Toulouse III Paul Sabatier
  • , Marta EspinozaAffiliated withDepartamento de Ciencias Forenses, Organismo de Investigación Judicial, Poder Judicial, Unidad de Genética Forense
    • , Fabricio González-AndradeAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Department of Medicine, Metropolitan Hospital
    • , Sibte HadiAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)School of Forensic & Investigative Sciences, University of Central Lancashire
    • , Uta-Dorothee ImmelAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Institute of Legal Medicine, Martin-Luther-University Halle
    • , Catalin MarianAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Carcinogenesis, Biomarkers and Epidemiology Program, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center
    • , Antonio Gonzalez-MartinAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Department Zoology and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Biology, University Complutense of Madrid
    • , Gerhard MertensAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Forensic DNA Laboratory, Antwerp University Hospital
    • , Walther ParsonAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University
    • , Carlos PeroneAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Núcleo de Ações e Pesquisa em Apoio Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (NUPAD/FM-UFMG)
    • , Lourdes PrietoAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)DNA Laboratory, Comisaría general de Policía Científica, University Institute of Research Police Sciences (IUICP)
    • , Haruo TakeshitaAffiliated withInstituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP)Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine
    • , Héctor Rangel VillalobosAffiliated withFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoInstituto de Investigación en Genética Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Cienega (CUCI-UdeG), Universidad de Guadalajara
    • , Zhaoshu ZengAffiliated withFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoDepartment of Legal Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University
    • , Lev ZhivotovskyAffiliated withFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoInstitute of General Genetics, The Russian Academy of Sciences
    • , Rui CamachoAffiliated withFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoLaboratory of Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support (LIAAD-INESC)DEI, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto
    • , Nuno A. FonsecaAffiliated withFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade do PortoCRACS-INESC Porto LA

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Abstract

Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15–17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator (http://​cracs.​fc.​up.​pt/​popaffiliator) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

Keywords

Online calculator Genotype profile Autosomal STRs Individual affiliation