International Journal of Legal Medicine

, 124:7

Phylogenetic classification of Japanese mtDNA assisted by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences

Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00414-008-0308-5

Cite this article as:
Nohira, C., Maruyama, S. & Minaguchi, K. Int J Legal Med (2010) 124: 7. doi:10.1007/s00414-008-0308-5


We investigated control and coding region polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 100 unrelated individuals from a Japanese population and determined the basal phylogenetic haplogroup lineages in all samples under updated information. Many of the basal phylogenetic haplogroup lineages assigned on East Asian mtDNA haplogroups corresponded to those previously established. However, new haplogroup lineages such as M7a2a, M7a2b, M7a2*, M7c1b, M11b2*, G2b*, D4c1b1a, D4g2b, A4*, A9, N9b*, B4d1, B4d2, and F1e were identified and established by complete sequencing. Although sequence comparison of the 1.15-kb control region identified 84 mitochondrial haplotypes, examination of coding region polymorphisms increased the total number of haplotypes to 91. Determination of the basal haplogroup lineages increased the discrimination power of mtDNA polymorphisms for personal identification and their usefulness in determining geographic origin in forensic casework in Japanese and other East Asian populations.


Mitochondrial DNA polymorphismControl and coding regionHaplogroupComplete sequenceJapanese

Supplementary material

414_2008_308_MOESM1_ESM.ppt (88 kb)
Fig. S1Geographic location and the number (in parenthesis) of the present Japanese samples. Abbreviations for prefectures are HO; Hokkaido, AM; Aomori, AT; Akita, YGA; Yamagata, MG; Miyagi, FS; Fukushima, TG; Tochigi, IR; Ibaragi, NG; Niigata, GM; Gunma, ST; Saitama, TK; Tokyo, CB; Chiba, KN; Kanagawa, NN; Nagano, YN; Yamanashi, SO; Shizuoka, AC; Aichi, TY; Toyama, IK; Ishikawa, WK; Wakayama, HG; Hyougo, OY; Okayama, HS; Hiroshima, SN; Shimane, EH; Ehime, FO; Fukuoka, OI; Ohita, NS; Nagasaki, and KGO; Kagoshima. (PPT 89 kb)
414_2008_308_MOESM2_ESM.xls (48 kb)
Table S1PCR primers, annealing temperature, and conditions for sequencing and SSCP analysis. (XLS 49 kb)
414_2008_308_MOESM3_ESM.xls (218 kb)
Table S3Variable nucleotide positions in 100 Japanese samples compared to reference sequences. (XLS 222 KB)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forensic OdontologyTokyo Dental CollegeChiba CityJapan