European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

, Volume 248, Issue 3, pp 130–135

Dimensions of schizophrenic positive symptoms: an exploratory factor analysis investigation

  • T. Kitamura
  • Yuji Okazaki
  • Akira Fujinawa
  • Isao Takayanagi
  • Yomishi Kasahara
Original paper

DOI: 10.1007/s004060050029

Cite this article as:
Kitamura, T., Okazaki, Y., Fujinawa, A. et al. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (1998) 248: 130. doi:10.1007/s004060050029

Abstract

Current psychopathology classifies schizophrenic positive symptoms into four groups: delusions, hallucinations, formal thought disorder, and catatonic symptoms. The present study explores the factor structure of different positive symptoms to refine this classification. The 35 positive symptoms of 429 psychiatric patients, consecutively admitted to any of 95 mental hospitals, with diagnosis of the ICD-10 F20 schizophrenia, were studied. After excluding those items with a base rate of 10% or less, factor analysis yielded six factors. The first factor was loaded by most of Schneider’s first-rank symptoms and two specific auditory hallucinations; the second by all the catatonic symptoms and incoherence; the third by bodily delusions/hallucinations; the fourth by delusions of persecution and reference; the fifth by grandiose and religious delusions; and the sixth by visual and miscellaneous hallucinations. The finding that schizophrenic positive symptoms may have more than four dimensions suggests the need for reclassification of schizophrenic symptoms and for reconsideration of evidence-based diagnostic criteria for the disorder.

Key words Positive symptomsSchizophreniaFactor analysis

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Kitamura
    • 1
  • Yuji Okazaki
    • 2
  • Akira Fujinawa
    • 3
  • Isao Takayanagi
    • 4
  • Yomishi Kasahara
    • 5
  1. 1.FRCPsych, Department of Sociocultural Environmental Research, National Institute of Mental Health, 1-7-3 Konodai, Ichikawa, Chiba, JapanJP
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki, JapanJP
  3. 3.National Institute of Mental Health, 1-7-3 Konodai, Ichikawa, Chiba, JapanJP
  4. 4.Arisawabashi Hospital, Toyama Prefecture, JapanJP
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, JapanJP