, Volume 261, Issue 2 Supplement, pp 150-154,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 25 Aug 2011

Schizophrenia as a disorder of disconnectivity

Abstract

Schizophrenia is considered as a neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental factors playing a role. Animal models show that developmental hippocampal lesions are causing disconnectivity of the prefrontal cortex. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem investigations revealed deficits in the temporoprefrontal neuronal circuit. Decreased oligodendrocyte numbers and expression of oligodendrocyte genes and synaptic proteins may contribute to disturbances of micro- and macro-circuitry in the pathophysiology of the disease. Functional connectivity between cortical areas can be investigated with high temporal resolution using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this review, disconnectivity between different cortical areas in schizophrenia patients is described. The specificity and the neurobiological origin of these connectivity deficits and the relation to the symptom complex of schizophrenia and the glutamatergic and GABAergic system are discussed.