, Volume 269, Issue 12, pp 2455-2459
Date: 15 May 2012

Reactive oxygen species in apoptosis induced by cisplatin: review of physiopathological mechanisms in animal models

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Abstract

Cisplatin is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent but displays significant ototoxic side effects. The most prominent change seen in the cochlea after cisplatin administration consists of loss of outer hair cells. Several mechanisms are believed to mediate cisplatin-induced apoptosis: binding of cisplatin to guanine bases on DNA and the formation of inter- and intra-strand chain cross-linking, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with increased lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ influx and, finally, inflammation mediated by cisplatin. The aim of the present review is to analyze the role of ROS in the mechanisms causing cisplatin-mediated apoptosis in the inner ear and the contribution of the different pathways involved, emphasizing the main strategies to blockade events leading to apoptosis of cochlear cells.