Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic technique enhancing mucosal vasculature and better identifying superficial carcinomas due to their neo-angiogenic pattern. NBI accuracy is increased by combination with a high-definition television (HDTV) camera. The aim of this report was to evaluate the diagnostic improvement of NBI ± HDTV in the evaluation of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) previously treated by chemo-radiotherapy (CHT-RT) or RT. A total of 390 patients affected by HNSCC were prospectively evaluated by NBI and white light (WL) endoscopy ± HDTV between April 2007 and April 2009 at a single academic institution. Among them, we focused on 59 (15%) patients who received CHT-RT or RT as part of their treatment. Of 59 patients, 13 (22%) showed adjunctive preoperative NBI findings when compared to the standard WL examination. These findings were always confirmed by intraoperative HDTV NBI, while only eight (62%) were visible with HDTV WL. Of 13 lesions, 12 received histopathologic confirmation (from carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma). The sensitivity of flexible NBI, HDTV WL, and HDTV NBI was 100, 66 and 100%, respectively. The specificity was 98, 100, and 98%. The positive predictive value was 92, 100, and 92%. The negative predictive value was 100, 94, and 100%. The accuracy was 98, 91, and 98%. NBI ± HDTV after CHT-RT or RT was of value in detecting tumor persistence (n = 2), early recurrences (n = 6), and metachronous tumors (n = 4). By contrast, only 1 of 59 (2%) patients was found to be false positive.
Narrow-band imaging High-definition television Head and neck cancer Radiotherapy Chemotherapy