Prevalence of microorganisms co-infections in human papillomaviruses infected women in Northern China
Due to scarce data on the prevalence of genital microorganism infections among individuals with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, the present study aimed to evaluate microorganism co-infections and associated risk factors in HPV-infected women in Northern China.
Cervical samples of 4290 enrolled female patients were collected to detect HPV, bacterial and yeast infections in gynecologic outpatients. Serum samples collected were analyzed for the presence of serological markers for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) and Treponema pallidum infections. HPV typing was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and flow-through hybridization on cervical brush specimens. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified by strand displacement amplification, and other microorganisms were detected by conventional methods. Odds ratio of co-infection was assessed between HPV-positive and -negative patients.
Overall, co-infections among HPV-infected patients showed a trend for risk compared with HPV-negative patients. In this cross-sectional study on 4290 female outpatients, statistical analyses revealed a significant association between HPV and detection of anti-HBV antibodies, bacterial vaginosis, C. trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum; no correlation was found between HPV infection and anti-HIV, anti-HCV, T. pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which were detected only in few cases among either HPV-positive or -negative patients.
The study demonstrated a significant association between HPV and HBV, bacterial vaginosis, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum. The study results suggest that it may be important to screen for the simultaneous presence of different microorganism co-infections with HPV that may have synergistic pathological effects.