Recent advances in optical imaging for cervical cancer detection
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- Orfanoudaki, I.M., Kappou, D. & Sifakis, S. Arch Gynecol Obstet (2011) 284: 1197. doi:10.1007/s00404-011-2009-4
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Cervical cancer is one of the most common and lethal gynecological malignancies in both developing and developed countries, and therefore, there is a considerable interest in early diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions. Although the current standard care mainly based on cytology and colposcopy has reduced rates of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, many lesions are still missed or overcalled and referred for unnecessary biopsies. Optical imaging technologies, spectroscopy approaches and high-resolution imaging methods are anticipated to improve the conventional cervical cancer screening providing in vivo diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Their concept is that morphologic and biochemical properties of the cervical tissue are altered in response to its malignant transformation. In addition, contrast agents that target against specific neoplastic biomarkers can enhance the effectiveness of this new technology. Due to the unprecedented growth of these optical techniques accompanied probably by favorable cost-effectiveness, the primary detection of premalignant lesions may become more accessible in both the developing and the developed countries and can offer see-to-treat workflows and early therapeutic interventions.