Archives of Dermatological Research

, Volume 306, Issue 2, pp 189–195

Assessment of serum level of interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 in leprosy: impact of previous Bacillus Calmitte Guerin vaccination

  • Mohammed A. Sallam
  • Enas A. S. Attia
  • Marwa S. E. Soliman
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00403-013-1411-0

Cite this article as:
Sallam, M.A., Attia, E.A.S. & Soliman, M.S.E. Arch Dermatol Res (2014) 306: 189. doi:10.1007/s00403-013-1411-0

Abstract

Macrophages play an important role in attempt to eliminate mycobacteria, via production of cytokines, including interleukin-1, and interleukin-12. Bacillus Calmitte Guerin (BCG) vaccination, known to induce interleukin-1β in tuberculosis, was originally aimed at tuberculosis control, but it showed efficacy against leprosy. Our aim was to estimate serum levels of interleukin-1β and interleukin-12, in leprosy, and to assess the impact of previous BCG vaccination on their levels. Serum interleukin-1β and interleukin-12 p70 were estimated in 43 leprotic patients and 43 controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were grouped according to presence or absence of reactions, as well as bacillary load. Serum interleukin-1β was significantly higher in patients as compared to controls (p = 0.047), and was significantly different in patients’ groups (p = 0.036); with significantly higher level in multibacillary patients, both non reactional and with erythema nodosum leprosum, compared with paucibacillary/non reactional patients (p = 0.012 and 0.049 respectively). A statistically significant higher interleukin-1β was found in BCG vaccinated paucibacillary patients as compared to unvaccinated patients (p = 0.031). Significantly elevated interleukin-12 was present in patients as compared to controls (p < 0.001), with no statistically significant difference comparing patients’ groups. BCG vaccination showed stimulatory effect on monocytes only in the immunocompetent paucibacillary leprosy patients, as evidenced by higher Interleukin-1β in this group. Interleukin-1β was shown to have a pro-inflammatory role in multibacillary patients with or without erythema nodosum leprosum. Targeting interleukin-1β may be promising to control episodic refractory erythema nodosum leprosum. Interleukin-12 may be a general marker of active Mycobacterium leprae infection.

Keywords

Bacillus Calmitte Guerin vaccine Interleukin-1β Interleukin-12 Leprosy 

Abbreviations

BB

Borderline borderline leprosy

BCG

Bacillus Calmitte Guerin

BL

Borderline lepromatous leprosy

BT

Borderline tuberculoid leprosy

CMI

Cell-mediated immunity

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ENL

Erythema nodosum leprosum

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

LL

Lepromatous leprosy

MB

Multibacillary

M. avium

Mycobacterium avium

M. leprae

Mycobacterium leprae

p

Probability factor

PB

Paucibacillary

PNL

Pure neural leprosy

r

Correlation factor

RL

Reactional leprosy

SPSS

Statistical program for social science

SSS

Slit-skin smear examination

Th

T helper cells

TT

Tuberculoid leprosy

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed A. Sallam
    • 1
  • Enas A. S. Attia
    • 1
  • Marwa S. E. Soliman
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine. Department of Dermatology, Venereology and AndrologyAin Shams UniversityCairoEgypt