Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes damages on human skin and premature skin aging (photoaging). UV-induced reduction of type I collagen in dermis is widely considered primarily induction of wrinkled appearance of photoaging skin. Type I procollagen synthesis is reduced under UV irradiation by blocking transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling; more specifically, it is down-regulation of TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII). Therefore, preventing UV-induced loss of TβRII results decreased type I collagen reduction in photoaging skin. Zymomonas mobilis is an alcohol fermentable, gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium whose effect on skin tissue is scarcely studied. We investigated the protective effects of fermentable metabolite of Z. mobilis (FM of Z.mobilis) against reduction of type I procollagen synthesis of UV-induced down-regulation of TβRII in human dermal fibroblasts FM of Z.mobilis was obtained from lyophilization of bacterium culture supernatant. The levels of TβRII and type I procollagen mRNA in human dermal fibroblasts were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and TβRII protein levels were assayed by western blotting. TβRII, type I procollagen, and type I collagen proteins in human dermal fibroblasts or hairless mouse skin were detected by immunostaining. FM of Z. mobilis inhibited down regulation of TβRII mRNA, and protein levels in UVB irradiated human dermal fibroblasts consequently recover reduced type I procollagen synthesis. These results indicate UVB irradiation inhibits type I procollagen synthesis by suppression of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, and FM of Z. mobilis has inhibitory effect on UVB-induced reduction of type I procollagen synthesis. While short period UVB irradiation decreased both TβRII and type I procollagen protein levels in hairless mouse skin, topical application of FM of Z. mobilis prevented this decrease. Wrinkle formation in hairless mouse skin surface was accelerated by continuous 5 month UVB irradiation along with a reduction of type I collagen in the dermis, but this change was prevented by topical application of FM of Z. mobilis. From this experimental data, it is suggested that FM of Z. mobilis is effective for suppression of wrinkle formation in photoaging skin by inhibition of type I procollagen synthesis reduction.
Zymomonas mobilisTGF-β type II receptorType I collagenUVBPhotoaging