Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery

, Volume 134, Issue 2, pp 189–195

Co-morbidities in elderly patients with hip fracture: recommendations of the ISFR-IOF hip fracture outcomes working group

  • Amy Hoang-Kim
  • Jason W. Busse
  • D. Groll
  • P. J. Karanicolas
  • E. Schemitsch
Trauma Surgery

DOI: 10.1007/s00402-013-1756-z

Cite this article as:
Hoang-Kim, A., Busse, J.W., Groll, D. et al. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg (2014) 134: 189. doi:10.1007/s00402-013-1756-z



Hip fractures are the second leading cause of hospitalization in the aged and by 2041, epidemiologists forecast an increase in economic cost to $2.4 billion. The hip patient population often presents with comorbidities causing these patients to receive less aggressive medical treatment and have a low quality of life. We believe that physical function is a patient-important outcome for many medical and surgical interventions. The functional co-morbidity index (FCI), unlike prior co-morbidity indices, was developed with physical function as an outcome instead of being designed for administrative purposes or to predict mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the perceptions of practitioners in hip fracture care about the impact of comorbidities on physical function as primary outcome.


We piloted and then distributed a self-administered survey to members of the International Society for Fracture Repair hip fracture outcomes working group. For each of the 18 diagnoses included in the FCI index, we asked in our survey whether the presence of the co-morbidity and whether the severity of the co-morbidity was perceived to impact physical function in patients following a hip fracture.


Seventeen out of 20 respondents completed the questionnaire. The presence and severity of arthritis was ‘strongly’ believed to predict physical function in those with hip fracture (69 and 85.7 %, respectively). Respondents ‘agreed’ (range 53–73 %) that 10/18 diagnoses would predict changes in physical function following hip fracture treatment. Whereas, 63 % of the practitioners‘strongly disagreed’ that diabetes types I and II would change physical function scores. Furthermore, dementia was listed as an additional diagnosis that would affect physical function.


The FCI may provide a useful instrument to predict functional outcome after hip fracture; however, the index may need to be modified for this specific population.


Co-morbidityHip fractureElderlySurveyOsteoporosis

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy Hoang-Kim
    • 1
  • Jason W. Busse
    • 2
  • D. Groll
    • 3
  • P. J. Karanicolas
    • 4
  • E. Schemitsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Medical Sciences, St. Michael’s HospitalUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  3. 3.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Sunnybrook HospitalTorontoCanada