Epidemiology of hip fractures in Belgrade, Serbia Montenegro, 1990–2000
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- Lešić, A., Jarebinski, M., Pekmezović, T. et al. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg (2007) 127: 179. doi:10.1007/s00402-006-0234-2
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This study retrospectively determined the incidence rates of hip fractures in Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, during the period 1990–2000.
Materials and methods
All patients with hip fractures treated at all Belgrade hospitals were identified from the Republic of Serbia’s Ministry of Health National Health Care database. Patient demographics, type of hip fracture, and details of the mechanism of injury were collected. The annual incidence rates were calculated with interpolation according to the Belgrade population census of 1991 and 2002.
There were a total of 8,904 hip fractures with a mean annual incidence of 51.7 per 100,000 adults (62.2 females and 35.5 males). Mean age at the time of fracture was 67 years (72.6 for females and 59.3 for males), with 64.7% of all fractures occurring in women. There was a significant increase in hip fracture incidence rates over the observed period in females (P = 0.006), but not in males (P = 0.962). Trochanteric fractures predominated, accounting for 53% compared with cervical fractures. In patients over 50 years of age there was an exponential increase in the incidence of hip fractures in both sexes; though more so in females. 91% of hip fractures occurred in these older patients with incidence rates of 143.6 per 100,000 (185.9 for female and 92.2 for male patients). The most common mechanism of injury in the older group was low-energy trauma (70.3%) resulting from a fall from standing height onto a flat surface (same level). Standardizing incidence rates in the older age group to the US 1985 white population gave values of 228 per 100,000 females and 96 per 100,000 males. These incidence rates are similar to those reported in Italy, France and Great Britain, but lower than those in Scandinavian countries.
In view of growing population numbers and an increase in the proportion of patients aged over 60 years, we can expect an increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and an increase in the incidence of fragility hip fractures in the future, with resource implications.