, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 87-94
Date: 26 Sep 2006

D2-40 functions as an effective chondroid marker distinguishing true chondroid tumors from chordoma

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas of the central nervous system share many histological features, generating, at times, considerable diagnostic difficulty and, not infrequently, requiring immunohistochemical analysis for appropriate classification. While both chordomas and chondrosarcomas stain positively for S100, only chordomas typically express epithelial antigens like cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive or negative staining with these latter two markers currently represents the only immunohistochemical technique that effectively distinguishes chordomas from chondrosarcomas. A marker that is reliably positive in chondrosarcomas and negative in chordomas has, to date, not been reported. D2-40 is a monoclonal antibody initially developed against M2A, a fetal testis-related antigen now known as podoplanin (aggrus), which has been found to stain a diverse collection of both benign and malignant tissues. In this study, we systematically investigated D2-40 immunoreactivity in a series of 22 chordomas, 20 chondrosarcomas, and 12 enchondromas, in conjunction with cytokeratin and S100 immunostaining. We found that D2-40 robustly and reliably immunostains low-grade chondroid neoplasms (100% of enchondromas and 94% of grades I and II chondrosarcomas), but not chordomas. By contrast, we observed generally strong and diffuse cytokeratin positivity in all cases of chordoma, but not in cases of enchondroma or low-grade chondrosarcoma. Thus, we show that D2-40 behaves as a chondroid marker differentiating true chondroid neoplasms from chordoma. We also demonstrate D2-40 immunoreactivity in two cases of chordoid meningioma and, in doing so, tentatively provide a means to distinguish this tumor from chordoma.