The present investigation describes the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles based on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) intramolecularly cross-linked with diamine, 2,2′-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), using water-soluble carbodiimide. The aqueous colloid dispersions of nanoparticles were clear or mildly opalescent depending on the ratio of cross-linking, pH of the solution, and the molecular weight of PAA, finding consistent with values of transmittance between 3% and 99%. The structure was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the particle size was identified by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that particle size depends on the pH, and at a given pH, it was caused by the ratio of cross-linking and the molecular weight of PAA. Particle size measured by TEM varied in the range of 20 and 80 nm. In the swollen state, the average size of the particles measured by DLS was in the range of 35–160 nm.