In the present study, we investigated the effects of l-arginine on aggregates of fatty acid/fatty soap in the aqueous media as a function of pH, by means of hydrogen ion titration, viscoelastic measurement, cryo-transmission electron microscopy and phase contrast microscopy. We found out that l-arginine effectively inhibits the oil droplet growth of oleic acid or octanoic acid. The effect is explained in terms of the adsorption of arginine at the microscopic drop surface, or at the oil/water microinterface through the hydrophobic effect assisted by the hydrogen bonds between carboxyl group of fatty acid and carboxylate of arginine. As to the crystallization of lauric acid at temperatures below the melting point of the hydrocarbon chain, arginine is not effective. In addition, we also found out that the strong binding of arginine cation to anionic oleate micells induces the dominant micellar growth. l-arginine has been used in many refolding systems to suppress protein aggregation. These effects of l-arginine on the aggregates of fatty acid/fatty soap in the aqueous media observed in the present study is expected to form a basis to the specific function displayed in the protein refolding.