Remote ischemic preconditioning reduces myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass surgery with crystalloid cardioplegic arrest
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- Thielmann, M., Kottenberg, E., Boengler, K. et al. Basic Res Cardiol (2010) 105: 657. doi:10.1007/s00395-010-0104-5
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Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) with transient upper limb ischemia reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cross-clamp fibrillation or blood cardioplegia for myocardial protection. Whether or not such protection is still operative when standard crystalloid cardioplegic arrest is used is uncertain. Fifty-three consecutive, non-diabetic patients with triple-vessel disease and 64 ± 12 years of age (mean ± SD), who underwent elective CABG surgery with crystalloid (Bretschneider) cardioplegic arrest, were allocated in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded protocol to receive either a RIPC protocol (3 cycles of 5 min transient left upper arm ischemia induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff to 200 mmHg with 5 min of reperfusion) or control, respectively, after induction of anesthesia. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration was measured preoperatively and over 72 h postoperatively, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Peak postoperative cTnI concentration was significantly reduced from 13.7 ± 7.7 ng/mL in controls to 8.9 ± 4.4 ng/mL in RIPC (P = 0.008). Mean cTnI concentration was significantly lower at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery (ANOVA; P < 0.0001) in the RIPC patients (N = 27) than in controls (N = 26), resulting in a 44.5% reduction of cTnI (AUC at 72 h). RIPC by repetitive inflation of a cuff around the left upper arm before surgery enhances myocardial protection in patients undergoing CABG surgery with antegrade cold crystalloid cardioplegia.