Original Contribution

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 251-258

Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda consumption and the 7-year risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men

  • M. SakuraiAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical UniversityDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Email author 
  • , K. NakamuraAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University
  • , K. MiuraAffiliated withDepartment of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science
  • , T. TakamuraAffiliated withDepartment of Disease Control and Homeostasis, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science
  • , K. YoshitaAffiliated withDepartment of Food Science and Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University
  • , S. Y. NagasawaAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University
  • , Y. MorikawaAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University
  • , M. IshizakiAffiliated withDepartment of Social and Environmental Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University
  • , T. KidoAffiliated withSchool of Health Sciences, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University
    • , Y. NaruseAffiliated withDepartment of Community and Geriatric Nursing, Toyama University
    • , Y. SuwazonoAffiliated withDepartment of Occupation and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University
    • , S. SasakiAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical UniversityDepartment of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo
    • , H. NakagawaAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University

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Abstract

Purpose

This cohort study investigated the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and diet soda consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

Methods

The participants were 2,037 employees of a factory in Japan. We measured consumption of SSB and diet soda using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The incidence of diabetes was determined in annual medical examinations over a 7-year period. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for diabetes were estimated after adjusting for age, body mass index, family history, and dietary and other lifestyle factors.

Results

During the study, 170 participants developed diabetes. The crude incidence rates (/1,000 person-years) across participants who were rare/never SSB consumers, <1 serving/week, ≥1 serving/week and <1 serving/day, and ≥1 serving/day were 15.5, 12.7, 14.9, and 17.4, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted HR compared to rare/never SSB consumers was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.80–2.27) for participants who consumed ≥1 serving/day SSB. Diet soda consumption was significantly associated with the incident risk of diabetes (P for trend = 0.013), and multivariate-adjusted HRs compared to rare/never diet soda consumers were 1.05 (0.62–1.78) and 1.70 (1.13–2.55), respectively, for participants who consumed <1 serving/week and ≥1 serving/week.

Conclusions

Consumption of diet soda was significantly associated with an increased risk for diabetes in Japanese men. Diet soda is not always effective at preventing type 2 diabetes even though it is a zero-calorie drink.

Keywords

Cohort study Epidemiology Incidence Nutrition