European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 1289–1302

Trans-fatty acids, dangerous bonds for health? A background review paper of their use, consumption, health implications and regulation in France

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00394-012-0484-4

Cite this article as:
Menaa, F., Menaa, A., Menaa, B. et al. Eur J Nutr (2013) 52: 1289. doi:10.1007/s00394-012-0484-4

Abstract

Introduction

Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) can be produced either from bio-hydrogenation in the rumen of ruminants or by industrial hydrogenation. While most of TFAs’ effects from ruminants are poorly established, there is increasing evidence that high content of industrial TFAs may cause deleterious effects on human health and life span.

Material and methods

Indeed, several epidemiological and experimental studies strongly suggest that high content of most TFA isomers could represent a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by a mechanism that lowers the “good HDL cholesterol” and raises the “bad LDL cholesterol.”

Results

With respect to the general precautionary principle and considering the existence of an international policy consensus regarding the need for public health action, some industrialized countries, such as France, are still not sufficiently involved in preventive strategies that aim to efficiently reduce TFAs content and TFAs consumption and produce alternative healthier fat sources.

Conclusion

In this manuscript, we provide an overview about TFAs origins, their use and consumption among French population. We also discuss their potential human health implications as well as the preventive and regulatory measures undertaken in France.

Keywords

Trans-fatty acidsHealth complicationsPreventive medicineNutritionRegulatory affairsFrench populations

Abbreviations

AFSSA

Agence Française Sanitaire et Sociale des Aliments

Ag-TLC

Silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography

CLA

Conjugated linoleic acid

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FA

Fatty acid

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FTIR–ATR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy–attenuated total reflection

GC

Gas chromatography

g/d

Gram per day

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HPLC

High-pressure liquid chromatography

MUFA

Mono-unsaturated fatty acid

PHVO

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils

PUFA

Poly-unsaturated fatty acid

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

TFA

Trans-fatty acid

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Sciences and TechnologyFluorotronics, Inc.San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Aesthetic and Anti-Aging MedicineCentre Médical Des GuittièresSaint-Philbert de Grand lieuFrance
  3. 3.Centre de Recherches des CordeliersUniversité Paris V-René Descartes, UMRS INSERM U872ParisFrance