Original Contribution

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 52, Issue 7, pp 1733-1742

First online:

New perspectives on vitamin D sources in Germany based on a novel mathematical bottom-up model of 25(OH)D serum concentrations

  • Jonathan BrownAffiliated withDepartment of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
  • , Anita IgnatiusAffiliated withInstitute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Ulm University
  • , Michael AmlingAffiliated withDepartment of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf Email author 
  • , Florian BarvencikAffiliated withDepartment of Osteology and Biomechanics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

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Abstract

Purpose

Up-to-date knowledge about vitamin D supply and serum concentration in Germany is not sufficient. Our purpose was to compare a novel holistic bottom-up modeling of 25(OH)D concentrations with vitamin D sources such as sunlight, food and supplements for all federal states taking seasonal and geographical variations into account. The second purpose was to update and detail vitamin D supply through food in Germany.

Methods

To confirm the model of 25(OH)D concentrations, we used the population (1,763 men and 2,267 women, 18–79 years) participated in the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 and the integrated German Nutrition Survey.

Results

The maximum model value is 67.5 nmol/L in July and minimum model value is 29.3 nmol/L in January, while the average model value is 45.0 nmol/L. Men have a mean daily intake of 137 IU (3.42 μg) and women of 112 IU (2.79 μg). Correlation between model and actual data is 0.77 (p = 0.003).

Conclusions

A comparison of the model data with population-based values showed good agreement. None of the vitamin D sources can provide the German population with enough vitamin D.

Keywords

Vitamin D Vitamin D deficiency UVB exposure Vitamin D supplementation Vitamin D in natural food