Original Contribution

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 917-926

Nutrient and food intakes of middle-aged adults at low risk of cardiovascular disease: the international study of macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP)

  • Christina M. ShayAffiliated withDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern UniversityDepartment of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Email author 
  • , Jeremiah StamlerAffiliated withDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University
  • , Alan R. DyerAffiliated withDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University
  • , Ian J. BrownAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London
  • , Queenie ChanAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London
  • , Paul ElliottAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College LondonMRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London
  • , Liancheng ZhaoAffiliated withDepartment of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College
  • , Nagako OkudaAffiliated withThe First Institute of Health Service, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association
  • , Katsuyuki MiuraAffiliated withDepartment of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science
    • , Martha L. DaviglusAffiliated withDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University
    • , Linda Van HornAffiliated withDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University

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Abstract

Purpose

Individuals with favorable levels of readily measured cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (low risk, LR) experience low long-term rates of CVD mortality and greater longevity. The purpose of the current study was to compare nutrient/food intakes of LR participants with participants not LR in the INTERMAP study.

Methods

Men and women (40–59 years) from 17 population samples in four countries (China, Japan, UK, US) provided four 24-h dietary recalls and two timed 24-h urine collections. LR was defined as meeting all of the following CVD risk criteria: systolic/diastolic blood pressure (BP) ≤120/≤80 mmHg; no drug treatment for high BP, hyperlipidemia, or CVD; non-smoking; BMI <25.0 kg/m2 (US, UK) or <23.0 kg/m2 (China, Japan); alcohol consumption <26.0 g/day (men)/<13.0 g/day (women); and no history of diabetes or CVD. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations of nutrient/food intakes with LR.

Results

LR individuals reported higher intake of vegetable protein, fiber, magnesium, non-heme iron, potassium; lower energy intake; lower intake of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, animal protein; and lower 24-h urinary sodium compared with individuals not LR. With regard to foods, LR individuals reported higher intake of fruits, vegetables, grains, pasta/rice, fish; lower intakes of meats, processed meats, high-fat dairy, and sugar-sweetened beverages than individuals not LR.

Conclusions

Lower energy intake and differential intake of multiple specific nutrients and foods are characteristic of individuals at low risk for developing CVD. Identification of dietary habits associated with LR is important for further development of public health efforts aimed at reduction/prevention of CVD.

Keywords

Cardiovascular disease Diet Foods Low cardiovascular risk Nutrients Risk factors