Serum and lipoprotein sitostanol and non-cholesterol sterols after an acute dose of plant stanol ester on its long-term consumption
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- Gylling, H., Hallikainen, M., Simonen, P. et al. Eur J Nutr (2012) 51: 615. doi:10.1007/s00394-011-0249-5
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Chronic inhibition of cholesterol absorption with large doses of plant stanol esters (staest) alters profoundly cholesterol metabolism, but it is unknown how an acute inhibition with a large staest dose alters the postprandial serum and lipoprotein cholesterol precursor, plant sterol, and sitostanol contents.
Hypercholesterolemic subjects, randomly and double-blind divided into control (n = 18) and intervention groups (n = 20), consumed experimental diet without and with staest (plant stanols 8.8 g/day) for 10 weeks. Next morning after a fasting blood sample (0 h), the subjects had a breakfast without or with staest (4.5 g of plant stanols). Blood sampling was repeated 4 h later. Lipoproteins were separated with ultracentrifugation, and sterols were measured with gas–liquid chromatography.
In 0-h chylomicrons and VLDL, plant sterols were lower in staest than in controls. Postprandially, cholestenol (cholesterol synthesis marker) was reduced in chylomicrons in staest compared with controls (−0.13 ± 0.04 μg/dL vs. 0.01 ± 0.08 μg/dL, P < 0.05). Staest decreased postprandially avenasterol in chylomicrons (P < 0.05 from 0 h). Sitostanol was high at 0 h by chronic staest in serum and VLDL but not in chylomicrons. Postprandial sitostanol was increased by staest in VLDL only.
Chronic cholesterol absorption inhibition with large amount of plant stanol esters decreases plant sterols in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Acute plant stanol ester consumption increases sitostanol content in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but suggests to decrease the risk of plant sterol and plant stanol accumulation into vascular wall by chylomicrons.