Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Long term cocoa ingestion leads to an increased resistance against UV-induced erythema and a lowered transepidermal water loss.
Aim of the study
To investigate the acute effects of a single dose of cocoa rich in flavanols on dermal microcirculation.
In a crossover design study, 10 healthy women ingested a cocoa drink (100 ml) with high (329 mg) or low (27 mg) content of flavanols. The major flavanol monomer in both drinks was epicatechin, 61 mg in the high flavanol, and 6.6 mg in the low flavanol product per 100 ml. Dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were examined by laser Doppler flowmetry and spectroscopically at 1 mm skin depth at t = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. At the same time points, plasma levels of total epicatechin (free compound plus conjugates) were measured by means of HPLC.
Subsequent to the intake of high flavanol cocoa, dermal blood flow was significantly increased by 1.7-fold at t = 2 h and oxygen saturation was elevated 1.8-fold. No statistically significant changes were found upon intake of low flavanol cocoa. Maximum plasma levels of total epicatechin were observed 1 h after ingestion of the high flavanol cocoa drink, 11.6 ± 7.4 nmol/l at baseline, and 62.9 ± 35.8 nmol/l at 1 h. No change of total epicatechin was found in the low flavanol group.
Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption acutely increases dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation.
- Boelsma E, vande Vijver LP, Goldbohm RA, Klopping-Ketelaars IA, Hendriks HF, Roza L (2003) Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet. Am J Clin Nutr 77:348–355
- Sies H, Stahl W (2004) Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight. Annu Rev Nutr 24:173–200 CrossRef
- F’guyer S, Afaq F, Mukhtar H (2003) Photochemoprevention of skin cancer by botanical agents. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 19:56–72 CrossRef
- Gu L, Kelm MA, Hammerstone JF, Beecher G, Holden J, Haytowitz D, Gebhardt S, Prior RL (2004) Concentrations of proanthocyanidins in common foods and estimations of normal consumption. J Nutr 134:613–617
- Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H, Sies H, Stahl W (2006) Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. J Nutr 136:1565–1569
- Baba S, Osakabe N, Natsume M, Yasuda A, Takizawa T, Nakamura T, Terao J (2000) Cocoa powder enhances the level of antioxidative activity in rat plasma. Br J Nutr 84:673–680
- Sies H, Schewe T, Heiss C, Kelm M (2005) Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory mediators. Am J Clin Nutr 81:304S–312S
- Warden BA, Smith LS, Beecher GR, Balentine DA, Clevidence BA (2001) Catechins are bioavailable in men, women drinking black tea throughout the day. J Nutr 131:1731–1737
- Berardesca E, Leveque JL, Masson P (2002) EEMCO guidance for the measurement of skin microcirculation. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 15:442–456 CrossRef
- Heiss C, Dejam A, Kleinbongard P, Schewe T, Sies H, Kelm M (2003) Vascular effects of cocoa rich in flavan-3-ols. JAMA 290:1030–1031 CrossRef
- Schroeter H, Heiss C, Balzer J, Kleinbongard P, Keen CL, Hollenberg NK, Sies H, Kwik-Uribe C, Schmitz HH, Kelm M (2006) (−)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:1024–1029 CrossRef
- Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Dejam A, Perre S, Schroeter H, Sies H, Kelm M (2005) Acute consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:1276–1283 CrossRef
- Fisher ND, Hughes M, Gerhard-Herman M, Hollenberg NK (2003) Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy humans. J Hypertens 21:2281–2286 CrossRef
- Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin
European Journal of Nutrition
Volume 46, Issue 1 , pp 53-56
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- blood flow
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, P.O. Box 101007, 40001, Dusseldorf, Germany
- 2. Institut für Experimentelle Dermatologie, Universität Witten-Herdecke, Witten, Germany