European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 243–253

Fatty acid profiles, antioxidant status, and growth of preterm infants fed diets without or with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

A randomized clinical trial

Authors

    • Dr. von Hauner Children’s HospitalLudwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
  • Ulrike Sauerwald
    • Dr. von Hauner Children’s HospitalLudwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
  • Ursula Keicher
    • Dr. von Hauner Children’s HospitalLudwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
  • Helmut Saule†
    • KinderabteilungZentralklinikum Augsburg
  • Susanne Wawatschek
    • KinderabteilungZentralklinikum Augsburg
  • Hansjosef Böhles
    • Zentrum der KinderheilkundeUniversity of Frankfurt/Main
  • Karin Bervoets
    • Zentrum der KinderheilkundeUniversity of Frankfurt/Main
  • Mathilde Fleith
    • Nestec Ltd.Nestle Research Center
  • Gayle Crozier-Willi
    • Nestec Ltd.Nestle Research Center
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

DOI: 10.1007/s00394-003-0418-2

Cite this article as:
Koletzko, B., Sauerwald, U., Keicher, U. et al. Eur J Nutr (2003) 42: 243. doi:10.1007/s00394-003-0418-2

Summary.

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are considered conditionally essential nutrients for the infant born prematurely, and attempts are being made to match fatty acid profiles of formula and breast fed infants. In this double-blind, randomized study we investigated the effects of a formula enriched with both n-6 and n-3 LCP on plasma fatty acid profiles, antioxidant status and growth of premature infants. 29 infants received either a formula devoid of LCP or a LCP supplemented formula (0.5 g/100 g fat linoleic acid metabolites, 0.8 g/100 g fat α-linolenic acid metabolites). 17 breast fed infants served as a control group. At study entry as well as two and four weeks later, plasma and urine samples were collected, growth data obtained and food tolerance was documented. At the end of the four week study period, plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of supplemented infants were significantly higher than those of unsupplemented infants and similar to those of infants fed human milk. Plasma n-6 LCP concentrations including arachidonic acid (AA) were similar between groups. The plasma α-tocopherol levels of breast fed and supplemented infants were similar and tended to be lower than in infants fed the formula devoid of LCP. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) excretion of formula fed infants was significantly higher compared to infants fed human milk, but did not differ between the two formula groups. Parameters of growth and milk tolerance did not differ between groups. Our results demonstrate that plasma LCP levels similar to those of breast fed infants can be achieved with the LCP supplemented formula used in this trial, without evidence of adverse effects of the LCP enrichment.

Key words

docosahexaenoic acidomega 3 fatty acidslipid peroxidationvitamin Elow birthweight infant nutrition
AA

arachidonic acid

ALA

α-linolenic acid

DGLA

dihomo-γ-linolenic acid

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

F

formula devoid of LCP

GLA

γ-linolenic acid

HM

human milk

LA

linoleic acid

LCP

long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

LCP-F

formula enriched with LCP

MDA

malondialdehyde

PC

phosphatidylcholine

PCA

postconceptional age

PE

phosphatidylethanolamine

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acid

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2003