Review

Clinical Research in Cardiology

, Volume 100, Issue 1, pp 11-19

Heart rate reduction in cardiovascular disease and therapy

  • Jan-Christian ReilAffiliated withKlinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie und, Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes Email author 
  • , Florian CustodisAffiliated withKlinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie und, Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes
  • , Karl SwedbergAffiliated withDepartment of Emergency and Cardiovascular Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg
  • , Michel KomajdaAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiology, La Pitié-Salpétrière Hospital, University Pierre et Marie Curie Paris VI
  • , Jeffrey S. BorerAffiliated withDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Howard Gilman Institute for Heart Valve Disease, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
  • , Ian FordAffiliated withRobertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow
  • , Luigi TavazziAffiliated withGVM Care and Research, Maria Cecilia Hospital
  • , Ulrich LaufsAffiliated withKlinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie und, Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes
  • , Michael BöhmAffiliated withKlinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie und, Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes

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Abstract

Heart rate influences myocardial oxygen demand, coronary blood flow, and myocardial function. Clinical and experimental studies support an association between elevated resting heart rate and a broad range of maladaptive effects on the function and structure of the cardiovascular system. Heart rate has been shown to be an important predictor of mortality in cardiovascular disorders such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and chronic heart failure. This review summarizes the specific influence of heart rate on vascular morphology and function as well as on myocardial lesions leading from early impact on vascular homeostasis to myocardial hemodynamics in chronic heart failure. Heart rate can be easily determined during physical examination of the patient and therefore allows a simple hint on prognosis and efficiency of therapy.

Keywords

Heart rate Selective heart rate reduction Coronary heart disease Heart failure