Original Article

International Journal of Colorectal Disease

, Volume 25, Issue 9, pp 1087-1092

First online:

Clinicopathological characteristics of rectal carcinoids

  • Sang Nam YoonAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center
  • , Chang Sik YuAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center
  • , Ui Sup ShinAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center
  • , Chan Wook KimAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center
  • , Seok-Byung LimAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center
  • , Jin Cheon KimAffiliated withDepartment of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Purposes

Carcinoids are heterogeneous neuroendocrine tumors with malignant potential. The rectum is the third most common location for gastrointestinal carcinoids. We assessed the clinicopathological characteristics of rectal carcinoids.

Methods

A retrospective study of 203 patients treated for rectal carcinoids at the Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea from 1991 to 2007.

Results

The patients were on average 51 (18–83) years old. The male-to-female ratio was 1.48:1. Over half (62.1%) of the patients were asymptomatic. The most frequent symptoms in the symptomatic patients were abdominal pain (11.1%) and hematochezia (10.7%). Local excision was applied to 92.1%, low anterior resection to 4.9%, and biopsy only to 3.0% of total patients. Initially, 4.4% presented with distant metastasis. Distant metastasis rates for tumors ≤1 cm, >1 to ≤2 cm, and >2 cm were 1.7% (3/177), 15.0% (3/20), and 50.0% (3/6), respectively. In the follow-up period, three patients showed recurrences. The size, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and T and N stages were associated with distant metastasis. The overall 5-year survival rate was 94.0%. The TNM stage and presence of lymphovascular invasion were associated with lower survival.

Conclusions

The chance that a rectal carcinoid will develop distant metastases increases as the tumor increases in size, lymphovascular invasion or perineural invasion is present, and T and N stages increase. The TNM stage and presence of lymphovascular invasion were associated with lower survival. Treatment plan should be chosen carefully considering above factors.

Keywords

Rectal carcinoids Tumor size Depth of invasion Lymph node metastasis Lymphovascular invasion Perineural invasion Distant metastasis