Review Article

Pediatric Surgery International

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 769-781

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Review of genetic factors in intestinal malrotation

  • Vicki MartinAffiliated withWellcome Trust Sanger InstituteInstitute of Child Health
  • , Charles Shaw-SmithAffiliated withWellcome Trust Sanger InstituteInstitute of Child Health Email author 


Intestinal malrotation is well covered in the surgical literature from the point of view of operative management, but few reviews to date have attempted to provide a comprehensive examination of the topic from the point of view of aetiology, in particular genetic aetiology. Following a brief overview of molecular embryology of midgut rotation, we present in this article instances of and case reports and case series of intestinal malrotation in which a genetic aetiology is likely. Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked and chromosomal forms of the disorder are represented. Most occur in syndromic form, that is to say, in association with other malformations. In many instances, recognition of a specific syndrome is possible, one of several examples discussed being the recently described association of intestinal malrotation with alveolar capillary dysplasia, due to mutations in the forkhead box transcription factor FOXF1. New advances in sequencing technology mean that the identification of the genes mutated in these disorders is more accessible than ever, and paediatric surgeons are encouraged to refer to their colleagues in clinical genetics where a genetic aetiology seems likely.


Intestinal malrotation FOXF1 Genetics Embryology