, Volume 40, Issue 5-6, pp 1399-1413,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Behaviors of nonlinearities modulating the El Niño events induced by optimal precursory disturbances

Abstract

In the present paper, we explore the manner in which nonlinearities modulate El Niño events by investigating the optimal precursory disturbance for El Niño events in the Zebiak-Cane model. The initial anomalies of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) and linear singular vectors (LSVs) are investigated. The CNOPs evolve into stronger El Niño events than the LSVs and act as the optimal precursor for El Niño events. By examining the role of nonlinearities in El Niño events induced by CNOPs and LSVs, we determined that, when the initial anomalies of the CNOP and LSV structures are large, the nonlinearities enhance CNOP-El Niño events but suppress LSV-El Niño events. Nonlinearities in the Zebiak-Cane model arise from nonlinear temperature advection (NTA), sub-surface temperature parameterization (STP), and wind stress anomalies (WSA). Using these types of nonlinearities, we trace the approach of the nonlinearities modulating the CNOP- and LSV-El Niño events. The results demonstrate that nonlinearities that originate from NTA enhance both CNOP-El Niño events and LSV-El Niño events, while nonlinearities originating from STP and WSA suppress these events. For the CNOP-El Niño events, the enhancement effect of NTA is larger than the suppression effect of STP and WSA, resulting in the combined effect of the nonlinearities in the Zebiak-Cane model being an enhancement of the CNOP-El Niño events. However, for the LSV-El Niño events, the enhancement effect of NTA is smaller than the suppression effect of WSA and STP. Consequently, the combined effect of the nonlinearities in the Zebiak-Cane model suppresses the LSV-El Niño events.