Climate Dynamics

, Volume 36, Issue 11, pp 2103–2112

Warm winds from the Pacific caused extensive Arctic sea-ice melt in summer 2007

  • Rune G. Graversen
  • Thorsten Mauritsen
  • Sybren Drijfhout
  • Michael Tjernström
  • Sebastian Mårtensson
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0809-z

Cite this article as:
Graversen, R.G., Mauritsen, T., Drijfhout, S. et al. Clim Dyn (2011) 36: 2103. doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0809-z
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Abstract

During summer 2007 the Arctic sea-ice shrank to the lowest extent ever observed. The role of the atmospheric energy transport in this extreme melt event is explored using the state-of-the-art ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We find that in summer 2007 there was an anomalous atmospheric flow of warm and humid air into the region that suffered severe melt. This anomaly was larger than during any other year in the data (1989–2008). Convergence of the atmospheric energy transport over this area led to positive anomalies of the downward longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes. In the region that experienced unusual ice melt, the net anomaly of the surface fluxes provided enough extra energy to melt roughly one meter of ice during the melting season. When the ocean successively became ice-free, the surface-albedo decreased causing additional absorption of shortwave radiation, despite the fact that the downwelling solar radiation was smaller than average. We argue that the positive anomalies of net downward longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes played a key role in initiating the 2007 extreme ice melt, whereas the shortwave-radiation changes acted as an amplifying feedback mechanism in response to the melt.

Keywords

ArcticSea iceEnergy transportGreenhouse effectSurface-albedo feedback

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rune G. Graversen
    • 1
  • Thorsten Mauritsen
    • 2
  • Sybren Drijfhout
    • 1
  • Michael Tjernström
    • 3
  • Sebastian Mårtensson
    • 3
  1. 1.Royal Netherlands Meteorological InstituteDe BiltThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Max-Planck Institute for MeteorologyHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of MeteorologyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden