, Volume 49, Issue 8, pp 1085-1096
Date: 23 Apr 2013

Diversity and vertical distribution of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under two soybean rotational systems

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To evaluate the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to crop production, it is imperative to move beyond the plow layer to include the full soil profile impacted by plant roots. To illustrate this, we investigated the vertical distribution of AMF biomass and community structure within the top 100 cm of soil in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr., cv: Enrei) rotational systems cropped to wheat (Triticuma estivum L. cv: Bandowase) or left fallow using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers and molecular analysis, respectively. AMF biomass, as measured by concentration of C16:1cis11, declined during fallow and with increasing soil depth. Greater than 50 % of the stored AMF biomass was found at depths below 35 cm. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 16 AMF phylotypes, including nine Glomus, two Gigaspora, two Scutellospora, and one each of Diversispora, Paraglomus, and an unknown glomeromycete, at different sampling depths in this study. Cluster analysis based on the number and abundance of each AMF phylotype formed two distinct clusters separating wheat from fallow rotations. There was no distinct relationship with soil depth beyond clustering AMF communities above and below 20 cm under wheat. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that AMF communities by soil depth within each rotation were not significantly different. However, AMF communities were clearly influenced by crop rotation, where the distribution of specific AMF phylotypes responded to the presence of the wheat crop.