Retracted Article: Analysis of critical ricochet angle using two space discretization methods
 Kamran Daneshjou,
 Majid Shahravi
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Ricochet of a tungsten longrod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using two explicit finite element methods. These two methods are Lagrange and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH). Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates in Lagrange and SPH methods. It was predicted that in every two methods, critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. The experimental results are discussed and compared with results predicted by the simulations and existing twodimensional analytical model Through Investigation of the angles in which projectile only ricochets, both SPH and Lagrange methods represent approximate alike results. But in the cases that projectile begins to crack in head region out of high impact angles, the SPH method yields better results. One other advantage of the SPH against the Lagrange method is that no erosion happens though the method and therefore all the particles caused by impact are clearly seen. This means better satisfaction of the principle of conservation of mass. Therefore the correlation between the numerical results and the available experimental and observed data demonstrates that the SPH approach is an accurate and effective analysis technique for long rod ricochet phenomena in ricochet of tungsten rod with RHA target.
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 Title
 Retracted Article: Analysis of critical ricochet angle using two space discretization methods
 Journal

Engineering with Computers
Volume 25, Issue 2 , pp 191206
 Cover Date
 20090301
 DOI
 10.1007/s003660080118x
 Print ISSN
 01770667
 Online ISSN
 14355663
 Publisher
 SpringerVerlag
 Additional Links
 Topics
 Keywords

 Critical ricochet angle
 Numerical simulation
 Smooth particle hydrodynamic
 Lagrange method
 Industry Sectors
 Authors

 Kamran Daneshjou ^{(1)}
 Majid Shahravi ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran