Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 195, Issue 11, pp 989–1009

Modulation of stomatogastric rhythms

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00359-009-0483-y

Cite this article as:
Stein, W. J Comp Physiol A (2009) 195: 989. doi:10.1007/s00359-009-0483-y
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Abstract

Neuromodulation by peptides and amines is a primary source of plasticity in the nervous system as it adapts the animal to an ever-changing environment. The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system is one of the premier systems to study neuromodulation and its effects on motor pattern generation at the cellular level. It contains the extensively modulated central pattern generators that drive the gastric mill (chewing) and pyloric (food filtering) rhythms. Neuromodulators affect all stages of neuronal processing in this system, from membrane currents and synaptic transmission in network neurons to the properties of the effector muscles. The ease with which distinct neurons are identified and their activity is recorded in this system has provided considerable insight into the mechanisms by which neuromodulators affect their target cells and modulatory neuron function. Recent evidence suggests that neuromodulators are involved in homeostatic processes and that the modulatory system itself is under modulatory control, a fascinating topic whose surface has been barely scratched. Future challenges include exploring the behavioral conditions under which these systems are activated and how their effects are regulated.

Keywords

Stomatogastric ganglion Neuromodulation Central pattern generator Projection neuron Sensorimotor 

Abbreviations

AB

Anterior burster

CoG

Commissural ganglion

CPG

Central pattern generator

CPN2

Commissural projection neuron 2

GABA

γ-Aminobutyric acid

GM

Gastric mill neurons

GPR

Gastro-pyloric receptor

IA

A-type current

Ih

h-type current

IHTK

High-threshold potassium current

IMIC

Neuromodulator-induced current

LG

Lateral gastric neuron

LP

Lateral pyloric neuron

MCN

Modulatory commissural neuron

MPN

Modulatory proctolin neuron

PD

Pyloric dilator neuron

STG

Stomatogastric ganglion

STNS

Stomatogastric nervous system

Supplementary material

359_2009_483_MOESM1_ESM.doc (230 kb)
Supplemental 1 (DOC 229 kb)
359_2009_483_MOESM2_ESM.doc (1.8 mb)
Supplemental 2 (DOC 1809 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of NeurobiologyUlm UniversityUlmGermany

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