, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 683-699

Hypersonic interference heating in the vicinity of surface protuberances

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Abstract

The understanding of the behaviour of the flow around surface protuberances in hypersonic vehicles is developed and an engineering approach to predict the location and magnitude of the highest heat transfer rates in their vicinity is presented. To this end, an experimental investigation was performed in a hypersonic facility at freestream Mach numbers of 8.2 and 12.3 and Reynolds numbers ranging from Re /m = 3.35 × 106 to Re /m = 9.35 × 106. The effects of protuberance geometry, boundary layer state, freestream Reynolds number and freestream Mach numbers were assessed based on thin-film heat transfer measurements. Further understanding of the flowfield was obtained through oil-dot visualizations and high-speed schlieren videos. The local interference interaction was shown to be strongly 3-D and to be dominated by the incipient separation angle induced by the protuberance. In interactions in which the incoming boundary layer remains unseparated upstream of the protuberance, the highest heating occurs adjacent to the device. In interactions in which the incoming boundary layer is fully separated ahead of the protuberance, the highest heating generally occurs on the surface just upstream of it except for low-deflection protuberances under low Reynolds freestream flow conditions in which case the heat flux to the side is greater.