Original Article

World Journal of Urology

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 389-395

First online:

The IL-1RN and IL-4 gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers of susceptibility to bladder cancer: a case–control study

  • S. T. BozdoğanAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty, Mersin University
  • , B. ErolAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Medeniyet University Email author 
  • , A. DursunAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty, Bulent Ecevit University
  • , G. BozdoğanAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, Forum Yasam Hospital
  • , I. DönmezAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, Medical Faculty, Bülent Ecevit University
  • , N. A. MunganAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, Medical Faculty, Bülent Ecevit University
  • , G. SeydaogluAffiliated withDepartment of Biostatistics, Medical Faculty, Cukurova University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Purpose

We investigated the relationship between the distribution of the IL-1RN, TNF-β and IL-4 polymorphism and the clinical features of bladder cancer.

Materials and methods

A total of 100 patients with bladder carcinoma and 102 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. The IL-1RN, IL-4 and TNF-β gene polymorphisms were identified by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism-based analysis. Allelic frequencies were compared between patient and the controls. Tumor stage, histopathological grade, tumor size/number and smoking condition were evaluated with IL-1RN, IL-4 and TNF-β gene polymorphisms.

Results

Allele distribution frequencies of IL-1RN and IL-4 gene polymorphisms were significantly different between patients and control groups. However, allele distribution of TNF-β gene was not statistically significant. There was no difference in allele distribution of the three genes in both groups regarding stage, tumor size, number of tumors and smoking condition. Although allele distribution of IL-4 gene showed significant difference considering histopathological grades in both smoking and total patients group, allele distribution of IL-1RN and TNF-β was not different.

Conclusion

The present research suggests that the IL-1RN and IL-4 gene polymorphisms are potential genetic markers of susceptibility to bladder cancer. In the future, clinical improvements on diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of bladder carcinoma are expected owing to development of more sensitive and specific tests for genetic polymorphisms of cytokines that are effective on inflammation.

Keywords

Bladder carcinoma Gene polymorphisms IL-1RN IL-4 TNF-β