, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 1389-1394
Date: 14 Dec 2012

Prevalence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) expression of the inner prepuce in asymptomatic boys and men

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



To investigate the prevalence of high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) human papillomavirus (HPV) in prepuces of boys and men without any HPV related lesions.

Patients and methods

Between 2009 and 2011, a total collective of 250 boys and men were investigated in this prospective study. The samples were subdivided into 3 groups regarding their age, consisting of 125 (50 %) children (0–10 years), 38 (15.2 %) adolescents (11–20 years) and 87 (34.8 %) adults (>20 years). In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed to detect HR and LR virus types within the epithelium, followed by microscopic interpretation and determination between episomal and integrative signal pattern.


Our results revealed high levels of HPV concentration (HR and LR) in all age groups: HR versus LR positivity was seen in 45.5 versus 35 % (children), 60.6 versus 63.6 % (adolescents) and 58.3 versus 48.6 % (adults). The topmost rate of HR (59.8 %)- and LR (50.6 %)-positive probes was found in the group with high estimated sexual activity (>14 years).


Concerning the high prevalence of male HPV infection even in children, indicating non-sexual transmission pathways, inclusion of boys in the vaccination program seems to be required reducing their burden of HPV related disease.

Gerald Klinglmair and Renate Pichler contributed equally to this study.