World Journal of Urology

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 161–167

Molecular prognostic factors in penile cancer

  • Asif Muneer
  • O. Kayes
  • Hashim U. Ahmed
  • Manit Arya
  • Suks Minhas
Topic Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00345-008-0275-y

Cite this article as:
Muneer, A., Kayes, O., Ahmed, H.U. et al. World J Urol (2009) 27: 161. doi:10.1007/s00345-008-0275-y

Abstract

Objectives

Penile cancer is a rare tumour in developed countries but more common in South America and East Africa. Although pathological prognostic factors have been established, there is great interest in evaluating molecular markers which correlate with prognosis and outcome.

Methods

We have reviewed the current status of our understanding of the molecular biology of penile cancer in order to identify established and potential prognostic factors in penile cancer. We have conducted an extensive literature search to review the current understanding of the role of prognostic markers in penile cancer.

Results

Although several markers have been evaluated, currently the clinical application of these markers is limited. HPV positive tumours show a variable prognostic outcome. P53 status may correlate with survival in T1 disease but further studies are required to establish the link to lymph node spread.

Conclusions

Pathological variables are well-established but further work is required to investigate the role of molecular markers. The development of molecular prognostic markers is important for the surveillance of patients and prediction of lymph node involvement as well as a prognostic marker for survival.

Keywords

PrognosticsSquamous cell carcinomaPenileMolecular

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asif Muneer
    • 1
  • O. Kayes
    • 1
  • Hashim U. Ahmed
    • 1
  • Manit Arya
    • 1
  • Suks Minhas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity College London HospitalLondonUK