World Journal of Urology

, 25:445

Renal transplant rejection markers

Topic Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s00345-007-0211-6

Cite this article as:
Gwinner, W. World J Urol (2007) 25: 445. doi:10.1007/s00345-007-0211-6


Acute rejection is one of the key factors which determine long-term graft function and survival in renal transplant patients. Timely detection and treatment of rejection is therefore, an important goal in the post-transplant surveillance. The standard care with serum creatinine measurements and biopsy upon allograft dysfunction implies that acute rejection is detected in an advanced stage. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring for acute rejection by markers in blood and urine has been tried over the past decades. This review describes the requirements that should be met by non-invasive markers. The experience with single biomarkers and with newer approaches—mRNA expression analysis, metabolomics, and proteomics—will be discussed, including future directions of necessary research.


KidneyTransplantationBiomarkerAcute rejectionProteomics

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of NephrologyMedical School HannoverHannoverGermany