Radical cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: long-term results of a standard procedure
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- Stein, J.P. & Skinner, D.G. World J Urol (2006) 24: 296. doi:10.1007/s00345-006-0061-7
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Radical cystectomy with an appropriate lymphadenectomy remains the standard of therapy for high-grade invasive bladder cancer. This surgical approach provides the best survival rates with the lowest local recurrence rates and orthotopic diversion can be performed safely in most patients with an acceptable outcome and quality of life. Pathologic analysis of the bladder tumor and regional lymph nodes will help direct the need for adjuvant therapy in high-risk individuals. Equivalent long-term local control and survival are not seen with other forms of treatment including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of the two. The rationale and clinical results of large, contemporary cystectomy series are presented, which provide a benchmark of outcomes with this form of surgical treatment.