Recent advances in nutritional research on urolithiasis
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- Siener, R. & Hesse, A. World J Urol (2005) 23: 304. doi:10.1007/s00345-005-0027-1
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Inappropriate dietary habits, overweight and lifestyle are suggested to contribute considerably to the increasing incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis. Numerous dietary factors can alter urinary composition and supersaturation, which can affect the process of stone formation. Dietary oxalate, calcium, protein, purines, sodium and ascorbic acid are known to be promoters of stone formation, whereas potassium and magnesium have been shown to be effective inhibitors. Although a high fluid supply has been demonstrated to decrease the incidence of urolithiasis, data from clinical and epidemiological studies on the effect of various beverages on the risk of urinary stone formation are conflicting. Continued research is warranted to clarify controversies concerning the impact of dietary calcium, oxalate, n-3 fatty acids, and phytate in calcium stone formation. Further randomized controlled studies should explore the long-term effects of dietary interventions in stone formers.