The interposition of bowel in continuity with the urinary tract has allowed for the preservation of renal function and continence in children with bladder exstrophy, as well as neurogenic and valve bladders. Although bladder augmentation with ileum or colon has been shown to be safe, the long-term effects of metabolic acidosis in addition to abnormalities in linear growth and bone metabolism remain largely unknown. We reviewed the literature to critically examine linear growth in children who have had bladder augmentation with a particular emphasis on the correlation between acid-base status, bone mineralization and growth. The majority of studies suggest that linear growth is not affected by bladder augmentation. In the short-term, children post-augmentation have varying degrees of metabolic acidosis which, overtime, appears to resolve with no affect on linear growth. In a single study, bladder augmentation led to significant bone demineralization almost a decade after surgery, however, even in these children no decrease in linear growth was noted. No alterations in bone density levels were seen with short-term follow-up.